Section 13-01: Instrument Cluster, Conventional
1996 F-150, F-250, F-350, Bronco, F-Super Duty Motorhome Chassis Workshop Manual
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING

Pinpoint Tests

 

PINPOINT TEST A: FUEL LEVEL READS INACCURATELY

   

A1 VERIFY POWER AT LOAD SIDE OF FUSE PANEL

Is the voltage greater than 10 volts?
YesNo
GO to A3.GO to A2.
 

A2 VERIFY POWER AT FEED SIDE OF FUSE PANEL

Is the voltage greater than 10 volts?
YesNo
REPLACE the fuse.REPAIR the wiring to the fuse panel.
 

A3 VERIFY POWER AT INSTRUMENT CLUSTER

Is the voltage greater than 10 volts?
YesNo
GO to A4.REPAIR the ignition wire.
 

A4 VERIFY GROUND CIRCUITRY AT CLUSTER

Is the resistance less than 1 ohm?
YesNo
GO to A5.REPAIR the wire to ground.
 

A5 CHECK FUEL GAUGE (EMPTY)

Does the fuel gauge read E (empty)?
YesNo
GO to A9.GO to A6.
 

A6 RECHECK FUEL GAUGE (EMPTY)

Does the fuel gauge read E (empty)?
YesNo
F-Series, Bronco, F-Super Duty: REPLACE instrument cluster . F-Super Duty Motorhome: GO to A7.GO to A9.
 

A7 CHECK PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD

Is the resistance less than 1 ohm?
YesNo
GO to A8.REPLACE instrument cluster.
 

A8 CHECK FUEL GAUGE SENDING UNIT WIRE

Is the resistance less than 5 ohms?
YesNo
GO to A9.SERVICE the DB/Y wire (F-Series front) or Y/LB (F-Series and Bronco rear) wire between the instrument cluster and the fuel level sensor.
 

A9 CHECK CHASSIS GROUND

Is the resistance less than 5 ohms?
YesNo
SERVICE short to chassis ground.GO to A10.
 

A10 CHECK FUEL TANK SENDING UNIT GROUND

Is the resistance less than 1 ohm?
YesNo
GO to A11.SERVICE the BK wire from the fuel level sensor to ground.
 

A11 FUEL TANK INSPECTION

Is the fuel tank damaged?
YesNo
REPLACE fuel tank. REFER to Section 10-01A.GO to A12.
 

A12 TEST BOX CHECK EMPTY STOP

Does the multimeter read 14-18 ohms?
YesNo
GO to A13.REPLACE fuel level sensor. REFER to Section 10-01A.
 

A13 TEST BOX CHECK FULL STOP

Does the multimeter read 154-162 ohms?
YesNo
GO to A14.REPLACE fuel level sensor. REFER to Section 10-01A.
 

A14 TEST BOX CHECK FLOAT ROD TRAVEL

Does multimeter reading decrease slowly?
YesNo
GO to A15.REPLACE fuel level sensor. REFER to Section 10-01A.
 

A15 HARNESS CONNECTOR CHECK EMPTY STOP

Does gauge read E (empty)?
YesNo
GO to A16.GO to A7.
 

A16 HARNESS CONNECTOR CHECK FULL STOP

Does gauge read F (full)?
YesNo
GO to A17.GO to A7.
 

A17 INSPECT FUEL SENDER

Is float rod distorted, hitting filter, filled with fuel or loose on float rod?
YesNo
REPLACE fuel level sensor. REFER to Section 10-01A.System OK.
 

PINPOINT TEST B: NO FUEL LEVEL INDICATION, VEHICLES WITH DUAL TANKS (6 PORT FUEL SELECTOR VALVE 7.3L DIESEL)

 

B1 BYPASS TANK SELECTOR VALVE

Does fuel gauge indicate fuel level in front and rear fuel tanks?
YesNo
REPLACE fuel tank selector valve. REFER to Section 10-01B.CHECK for faulty fuel gauge, fuel level sensor and/or wiring. REPAIR or REPLACE as necessary.
 

PINPOINT TEST C: ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE GAUGE INACCURATE/DOES NOT MOVE

 

C1 VERIFY POWER AT LOAD SIDE OF FUSE PANEL

Does voltage read between 10 and 15 volts?
YesNo
GO to C2.REPLACE IP fuse No. 18 and RETEST.
 

C2 VERIFY POWER AT INSTRUMENT PANEL

Does voltage read between 10 and 15 volts?
YesNo
GO to C3.REPAIR Circuit 640 (R/Y) connection and RETEST.
 

C3 MEASURE ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENDER CIRCUIT 640 CONTINUITY

Does circuit have continuity?
YesNo
GO to C4.SERVICE as required and RETEST.
 

C4 CHECK GAUGE COLD CALIBRATION

Does gauge read within COLD graduation?
YesNo
GO to C5.GO to C7.
 

C5 CHECK GAUGE HOT CALIBRATION

Does gauge read within HOT graduation?
YesNo
GO to C6.REPLACE engine coolant temperature sender.
 

C6 CHECK GROUND CONNECTION

Does circuit resistance read less than 0.1 ohm?
YesNo
REPLACE engine coolant temperature sender.CORRECT engine coolant temperature sender ground connection and RETEST.
 

C7 CHECK FLEX CIRCUIT CONTINUITY

Does circuit resistance read less than 0.2 ohm?
YesNo
GO to C8.CORRECT cluster flex circuit as required. RETEST.
 

C8 CHECK FOR CORROSION/POOR CONNECTIONS

Is there corrosion? Are there poor connections?
YesNo
REPAIR as required.REPLACE engine coolant temperature gauge and RETEST.
 

PINPOINT TEST D: OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR INACCURATE/DOES NOT MOVE

 

D1 VERIFY POWER AT LOAD SIDE OF FUSE PANEL

Does voltage read between 10 and 15 volts?
YesNo
GO to D2.REPLACE IP fuse No. 18 and RETEST.
 

D2 CHECK GAUGE FOR MID-SCALE GRADUATION

Does gauge read within mid-scale graduation or slightly above?
YesNo
GO to D3.REPLACE oil pressure sender.
 

D3 CHECK GROUND CONNECTION

Does circuit resistance read less than 0.1 ohm?
YesNo
REPAIR Circuit 31 (W/R) as required.GO to D4.
 

D4 CHECK FLEX CIRCUIT CONTINUITY

Does circuit resistance read less than 0.1 ohm?
YesNo
GO to D5.CORRECT cluster flex circuit as required and RETEST.
 

D5 CHECK FOR CORROSION/POOR CONNECTIONS

Is there corrosion? Are there poor connections?
YesNo
REPAIR as required.REPLACE oil pressure gauge and RETEST.
 

PINPOINT TEST E: CHARGE INDICATION READS INACCURATELY

 

E1 VERIFY VOLTAGE GAUGE OPERATION

Does gauge pointer move toward the lower portion of the NORMAL BAND (white marked area)?
YesNo
GO to E2.CHECK fuse and the battery-to-circuit breaker and circuit breaker-to-cluster wire connections. GO to E6.
 

E2 VERIFY POWER AT LOAD SIDE OF FUSE PANEL

Is system voltage present at load side of fuse?
YesNo
GO to E4.GO to E3.
 

E3 VERIFY POWER AT FEED SIDE OF FUSE PANEL

Is system voltage present at feed side of fuse?
YesNo
REPLACE fuse.SERVICE wiring to fuse panel.
 

E4 VERIFY POWER AT INSTRUMENT CLUSTER

Is voltage present at instrument cluster connector and gauge terminal?
YesNo
GO to E5.SERVICE as required.
 

E5 VERIFY GROUND CIRCUITRY AT INSTRUMENT CLUSTER

Is ground circuitry good?
YesNo
GO to E6.SERVICE as required.
 

E6 CHECK INSTRUMENT CLUSTER PRINTED CIRCUIT CONTINUITY

Are wiring and instrument cluster printed circuit OK?
YesNo
REPLACE instrument cluster.SERVICE wiring or REPLACE the instrument cluster.
 

PINPOINT TEST F: SPEEDOMETER/ODOMETER READS INACCURATELY

   

F1 CHECK SPEEDOMETER/ODOMETER CALIBRATION

Are speedometer and odometer calibration within specified limits?
YesNo
Speedometer normal.GO to F2.
 

F2 CHECK FOR "NOT PROGRAMMED" MESSAGE

Does ERROR 3 message alternate with normal odometer display?
YesNo
GO to F5. RESET conversion constant.GO to F3.
 

F3 CHECK TIRE/AXLE CAPACITY

Are tires the same size on opposite ends of a common axle and properly inflated?
YesNo
DETERMINE conversion constant. GO to F4.CORRECT condition or ADVISE customer. GO to F1.
 

F4 VERIFY CONVERSION CONSTANT AND DISPLAY TYPE

Is the programmed conversion constant the same as that displayed on the chart and does the programmed display mode match the speedometer graphics?
YesNo
REPLACE instrument cluster as described in this section. VERIFY proper operation.If conversion constant is wrong and programmed display mode OK, RESET conversion constant. REFER to Reset Conversion Constant in F5.

If conversion constant is OK and programmed display mode wrong, REPLACE instrument cluster as described in this section. VERIFY proper operation.

 

F5 RESET CONVERSION CONSTANT

Is conversion constant now set to the desired value?
YesNo
Procedure complete.GO to F4.
 

PINPOINT TEST G: SPEEDOMETER INOPERATIVE

   

G1 CHECK REAR ANTI-LOCK LAMP ILLUMINATION

Does anti-lock lamp on instrument panel go out after self-test?
YesNo
GO to G2.REFER to Section 06-09A or Section 06-09B.
 

G2 CHECK ODOMETER DISPLAY

Is odometer display on, and do digits appear normal?
YesNo
GO to G3.GO to G6.
 

G3 CHECK FOR PRESENCE OF ERROR MESSAGE

Does the word ERROR appear on the odometer display?
YesNo
REPLACE instrument cluster. VERIFY proper operation.GO to G4.
 

G4 CHECK ODOMETER OPERATION

Does the odometer display mileage increase with vehicle in motion or rear wheels turning?
YesNo
GO to G9.GO to G5.
 

G5 CHECK SPEEDOMETER OPERATION

Does speedometer indication increase with increasing vehicle speed?
YesNo
REPLACE instrument cluster. VERIFY proper operation.GO to G8.
 

G6 CHECK SPEEDOMETER POWER FUSES

If fuses are OK, do speedometer and odometer now operate properly?
YesNo
REPLACE instrument cluster. VERIFY proper operation.GO to G7.
 

G7 CHECK SPEEDOMETER CONNECTOR

Is resistance less than 1 ohm?
YesNo
REPLACE the instrument cluster.SERVICE wiring harness and fuses as required. VERIFY proper operation.
 

G8 CHECK SPEED INPUT SIGNAL

Does the voltage increase smoothly and continuously from 0 to approximately 3.5 volts as vehicle speed increases from 0 to 48 km/h (0 to 30 mph)?
YesNo
REPLACE the instrument cluster.SERVICE wiring. CHECK for open or shorted wiring. If no problems are found, REFER to Section 06-09A or Section 06-09B.
 

G9 CHECK SPEEDOMETER

Does speedometer indication increase with increasing vehicle speed?
YesNo
Normal operation. ADVISE customer.REPLACE the instrument cluster.
 

PINPOINT TEST H: SPEEDOMETER, IMPROPER OPERATION

   

H1 CHECK SPEEDOMETER OPERATION

Does the pointer smoothly prove out, or sweep from 0 to maximum speed then back to 0?
YesNo
GO to H2.After verifying good power and ground connections, GO to G6. REPLACE instrument cluster . VERIFY proper operation.
 

H2 CHECK ODOMETER DISPLAY

Are all odometer digits formed correctly (no extra or missing segments)? Do the select and reset buttons work normally?
YesNo
GO to H3. CHECK pointer.REPLACE instrument cluster . VERIFY proper operation.
 

H3 CHECK SPEEDOMETER POINTER

Does pointer jump or waver at a constant speed?
YesNo
GO to H4.GO to H5.
 

H4 CHECK RABS SPEED SENSOR RING AND SENSOR

Are any of the above conditions present?
YesNo
REPAIR or REPLACE as necessary. VERIFY proper operation.REPLACE the instrument cluster. VERIFY proper operation.
 

H5 CHECK FOR STUCK POINTER

Is pointer stuck at upper pointer stop?
YesNo
GO to H6.Speedometer normal.
 

H6 SPEEDOMETER POINTER PROVEOUT

Does the pointer return to the normal position?
YesNo
Speedometer normal.REPLACE the instrument cluster. VERIFY proper operation.
 

PINPOINT TEST J: SPEED CONTROL, PCM OR ELECTRONIC TRANSMISSION DISPLAY INOPERATIVE OR ERRATIC

 

NOTE: Follow this procedure only after being referred here from Section 10-03, Powertrain Control/Emissions Diagnosis Manual, or electronic transmission shop manual diagnostics.

 

J1 CHECK ANTI-LOCK LAMP ILLUMINATION

Does anti-lock lamp on dash go out after self-test?
YesNo
GO to J2.REFER to Section 06-09A or Section 06-09B.
 

J2 CHECK SPEEDOMETER SPEED OUTPUT SIGNAL

Is the circuit open?
YesNo
SERVICE wiring between speedometer and affected module as required. VERIFY proper operation.GO to J3.
 

J3 CHECK SPEED INPUT SIGNAL

Does the displayed frequency of the signal increase smoothly and continuously from 0 to approximately 667 Hz at approximately 48 km/h (30 mph)? OR does the voltage increase smoothly and continuously from 0 to approximately 3.5 volts as vehicle speed increases from 0 to approximately 48 km/h (30 mph)?
YesNo
REPLACE instrument cluster.SERVICE wiring. CHECK for open wiring. If no problems are found, REFER to Section 06-09A or Section 06-09B.
 

PINPOINT TEST K: TACHOMETER INOPERATIVE, ERRATIC, WRONG INDICATION, DIESEL ENGINE

 

K1 CHECK FUSE

Is fuse blown?
YesNo
REPLACE fuse. If fuse blows again, CHECK for short in circuit.GO to K2.
 

K2 CHECK WIRING

Are connections loose?
YesNo
SECURE loose connections.GO to K3.
 

K3 CHECK INSTRUMENT CLUSTER PRINTED CIRCUIT

Is instrument cluster printed circuit open or damaged?
YesNo
REPLACE instrument cluster.GO to K4.
 

K4 MAKE RESISTANCE/VOLTAGE CHECKS

Are resistances/voltages within specifications?
YesNo
Condition is not in tachometer. SERVICE wiring.RETURN to K1 and RETEST.
 

PINPOINT TEST L: TACHOMETER INOPERATIVE, ERRATIC, WRONG INDICATION, GASOLINE ENGINE

 

L1 CHECK FUSE

Is fuse blown?
YesNo
REPLACE fuse. If fuse blows again, CHECK for short in circuit.GO to L2.
 

L2 CHECK WIRING

Are connections loose?
YesNo
SECURE loose connections.GO to L3.
 

L3 CHECK INSTRUMENT CLUSTER PRINTED CIRCUIT

Is instrument cluster printed circuit open or damaged?
YesNo
REPLACE instrument cluster.GO to L4.
 

L4 MAKE RESISTANCE/VOLTAGE CHECKS

Are resistances/voltages within specifications?
YesNo
Condition is not in tachometer. SERVICE wiring.REPLACE tachometer.
 

PINPOINT TEST M: ALL WARNING INDICATORS INOPERATIVE

 

M1 TEST FUSE

Does fuse test OK?
YesNo
REINSTALL fuse. GO to M2.REPLACE fuse. VERIFY indicators operation.
 

M2 TEST FUSE PANEL VOLTAGE IN

Does circuit indicate a short or open?
YesNo
REPAIR or REPLACE circuit as necessary. VERIFY system operation.GO to M3.
 

M3 TEST INSTRUMENT CLUSTER FEED CIRCUIT

Does feed circuit test OK?
YesNo
REPLACE instrument cluster.REPAIR or REPLACE feed circuit wiring or connectors as necessary.
 

PINPOINT TEST N: BRAKE WARNING NEVER/ALWAYS ON

 

N1 CHECK BRAKE WARNING INDICATOR

Does brake warning indicator function properly?
YesNo
System OK.If system light illuminates and stays on, GO to N2. If system light does not illuminate, GO to N6.
 

N2 CHECK PARK BRAKE

Does brake warning indicator function correctly?
YesNo
System OK.GO to N3.
 

N3 CHECK BRAKE FLUID LEVEL

Is brake fluid level low?
YesNo
REFILL brake master cylinder reservoir with Ford High Performance DOT 3 Brake Fluid C6AZ-19542-AA or equivalent DOT 3 fluid meeting Ford specification ESA-M6C25-A. CHECK indicator operation.GO to N4.
 

N4 TEST PARK BRAKE SWITCH

Is there voltage through park brake switch?
YesNo
REPLACE park brake switch. CHECK for binding of park brake cable. REPAIR or REPLACE as necessary.GO to N5.
 

N5 CHECK FOR WIRE TO WIRE SHORTS

Is any wiring or connector damage indicated?
YesNo
REPAIR or REPLACE damaged component as necessary.REFER to Bronco or F-Series Electrical and Vacuum Troubleshooting Manual for additional information on system wiring diagrams.
 

N6 TEST FUSE

Does fuse test as having continuity?
YesNo
REINSTALL fuse. GO to N7.REPLACE fuse. CHECK system for proper operation.
 

N7 CHECK INDICATOR LAMP

Does indicator lamp show continuity?
YesNo
REINSTALL indicator lamp. GO to N8.REPLACE indicator lamp. CHECK system operation.
 

N8 TEST FOR FUSE PANEL FEED VOLTAGE

Does fuse panel show feed or input voltage?
YesNo
GO to N9.LOCATE and REPAIR short or open in circuit.
 

N9 TEST BRAKE WARNING FEED CIRCUITS FOR SHORTS OR OPENS

Are any shorts or opens located?
YesNo
REPAIR or REPLACE damaged circuit as necessary.GO to N10.
 

N10 TEST RETURN CIRCUIT

Does return circuit test as having continuity?
YesNo
GO to N11.REPAIR or REPLACE as necessary.
 

N11 TEST INSTRUMENT CLUSTER PRINTED CIRCUIT

Does instrument cluster printed circuit test OK?
YesNo
REFER to Section 06-00 for additional brake system service and the Electrical and Vacuum Troubleshooting Manual for additional wiring information.REPLACE instrument cluster.
 

PINPOINT TEST P: CHARGE SYSTEM WARNING NEVER/ALWAYS ON

 

P1 TEST INDICATOR LAMP

Does indicator lamp test OK?
YesNo
REINSTALL lamp. GO to P2.REPLACE lamp. VERIFY proper operation.
 

P2 TEST FEED CIRCUITS

Are shorts or opens indicated?
YesNo
REPAIR or REPLACE circuits or connectors as necessary.REFER to Bronco or F-Series Electrical and Vacuum Troubleshooting Manual or Section 14-00 in this manual for additional information on charging system.
 

PINPOINT TEST Q: HIGH BEAM WARNING NEVER/ALWAYS ON

 

Q1 TEST INDICATOR LAMP

Does indicator lamp have continuity?
YesNo
REINSTALL indicator lamp. GO to Q2.REPLACE indicator lamp. CHECK indicator for proper operation.
 

Q2 CHECK FEED CIRCUITS

Are short or open circuits found?
YesNo
REPAIR or REPLACE circuit(s) wiring as necessary.GO to Q3.
 

Q3 CHECK RETURN CIRCUIT

Does return circuit test as having continuity?
YesNo
GO to Q4.REPAIR or REPLACE return circuit as necessary. TEST system for correct operation.
 

Q4 TEST INSTRUMENT CLUSTER PRINTED CIRCUIT

Does printed circuit have continuity?
YesNo
REFER to Bronco or F-Series Electrical and Vacuum Troubleshooting Manual for testing procedures of multi-function switch.REPLACE instrument cluster.
 

PINPOINT TEST R: SAFETY BELT WARNING NEVER/ALWAYS ON

 

R1 TEST INDICATOR LAMP

Does indicator lamp test as having continuity?
YesNo
REINSTALL indicator lamp. GO to R2.REPLACE indicator lamp. CHECK system for proper operation.
 

R2 TEST FUSE

Does fuse test as having continuity?
YesNo
REINSTALL fuse. GO to R3.REPLACE fuse. CHECK system for proper operation.
 

R3 TEST SAFETY BELT SWITCH FOR SHORT

Does meter show voltage through switch?
YesNo
REPLACE safety belt switch. REFER to Bronco or F-Series Electrical and Vacuum Troubleshooting Manual.GO to R4.
 

R4 TEST SAFETY BELT SWITCH FOR OPEN

Does meter show voltage through switch?
YesNo
GO to R5.REPLACE safety belt switch. REFER to Bronco or F-Series Electrical and Vacuum Troubleshooting Manual.
 

R5 CHECK FOR VOLTAGE AT SAFETY BELT WARNING INDICATOR

Is at least 12 volts present?
YesNo
REFER to Section 13-09 for additional diagnostic information.GO to R6.
 

R6 TEST FEED CIRCUIT

Does feed circuit indicate a short or open?
YesNo
REPAIR or REPLACE feed circuit wire as necessary.GO to R7.
 

R7 TEST WARNING CHIME MODULE

Does warning chime module test OK?
YesNo
GO to R8.REPLACE warning chime module. CHECK system for proper operation.
 

R8 TEST FEED CIRCUIT TO INDICATOR

Does circuit indicate a short or open?
YesNo
REPAIR or REPLACE feed circuit wire as necessary.GO to R9.
 

R9 TEST RETURN CIRCUIT

Does meter indicate continuity through return circuit?
YesNo
REFER to Section 13-09 for additional diagnostic information.REPAIR or REPLACE return circuit wire as necessary.